Objective. This study analyses the history of the 'Premios Nacionales de InvestigaciÃ³n', a suite of awards for scientific research organised by the Spanish government, from the creation of the first awards in 1982 to 2019 and from the perspective of gender, in order to identify differences and similarities between the awards given to men and to women.
Methodology. The study describes and compares the awards using the five indicators award name, area of research, recipient, recipient gender and award money. To determine the scope, visibility and impact of the awards, the study also examines the award winners' presence in Google Scholar using the four indicators presence, citations, h-index and i10-index.
Results. The overall results reveal a persistent and pronounced gender gap. Of the 113 awards granted in the period under study, 102 (92.3%) went to men, and of the 1,340,649 citations counted in Google Scholar, only 4.7% were of women authors. The study concludes that women are clearly under-represented in Spain's national awards for scientific research, although when the data are related to visibility in Google Scholar, the results regarding the dissemination of research by women is more promising.